to illustrate key points? It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new hypotheses to be tested. By Publication This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature. Use Evidence Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. The unit of analysis can focus on a theoretical concept or a whole theory or framework. A literature review summarizes and synthesizes the existing scholarly research on a particular topic. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews.". What methods have they used to study the problem? Division of works under review into themes or categories [e.g. This type of literature review is primarily applied to examining prior research studies in clinical medicine and allied health fields, but it is increasingly being used in the social sciences. You don’t want to substitute a thorough review of core research literature in your discipline for studies conducted in other fields of study. For example, what might cultural anthropologists say about the continuing conflict in the Middle East? In such a case, the review usually precedes the methodology and results sections of the work. For example, a literature review that focuses on continuing research about the emergence of German economic power after the fall of the Soviet Union. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Review not just what scholars are saying, but. Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Narrow the Topic Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. How have they used non-textual elements [e.g., charts, graphs, figures, etc.] Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? It is a work of synthesis which provides the context for your own investigations. Clarify In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper, Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature. The research paper will be based on the analysis and interpretation of this data. [2], A fourth type, the systematic review, is often classified separately, but is essentially a literature review focused on a research question, trying to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high-quality research evidence and arguments relevant to that question. You can also use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a "hot topic" and what is not. This approach should only be followed if a clear path of research building on previous research can be identified and that these trends follow a clear chronological order of development. As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Review articles generally summarize the existing literature on a topic in an attempt to … Seven Steps to a Comprehensive Literature Review: A Multimodal and Cultural Approach. [6] Shields and Rangarajan (2013) and Granello (2001) link the activities of doing a literature review with Benjamin Bloom’s revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain (ways of thinking: remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating). A literature review is a scholarly paper that presents the current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. PS: Political Science and Politics 39 (January 2006): 127-132; Ridley, Diana. Summarize and Synthesize Historical Review Usually, a literature review can be described as an objective, concise, and critical summary of published research literature pertinent to the subject being researched in an article. A literature review is an enumeration, critical evaluation, synthesis and summary of past research in a logical and methodical way that displays to the reader Your grasp and understanding of your subject area and In the process helps you to address concepts, theories and other important issues that are related to your research. Often this form is used to help establish a lack of appropriate theories or reveal that current theories are inadequate for explaining new or emerging research problems. "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews." *This sample paper was adapted by the Writing Center from Key, K.L., Rich, C., DeCristofaro, C., Collins, S. (2010). 2nd ed. Should I provide subheadings and other background information, such as definitions and/or a history? A literature review is a piece of academic writing demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the academic literature on a specific topic placed in context. Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. While the study focuses on one topic, the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics, it will still be organized chronologically reflecting technological developments in media. Human Ressource Development Review 8 (March 2008): 120-130; Sutton, Anthea. Methodological Review Use the exercise of reviewing the literature to examine how authors in your discipline or area of interest have composed their literature review sections. Simple - A simple literature review is a brief overview of the topic not necessarily purely academic in scope and often uses popular sources (although popular sources are noted so their weight and value can be judged) this review is often just the start of the research process. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Chronology of Events 2nd ed. A meta-analysis is typically a systematic review using statistical methods to effectively combine the data used on all selected studies to produce a more reliable result.[3]. The bibliography or reference section of sources you've already read are also excellent entry points into your own research. Should I summarize, synthesize, or critique sources by discussing a common theme or issue? [5][7], For a focused scientific review with pre-defined methodology, see, "Writing Narrative Literature Reviews for Peer-Reviewed Journals: Secrets of the Trade", "To save the research literature, get rid of the literature review", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Literature_review&oldid=992673498, Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter, Articles needing unspecified expert attention, Articles needing expert attention from May 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 14:28. I. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016; Taylor, Dena. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2011; Knopf, Jeffrey W. "Doing a Literature Review." A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. 4. A literature review provides a reader with a comprehensive look at previous discussions prior to the one the reviewer will be making in his/her own research paper, thesis, or dissertation. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials according to when they were published. In short, a literature review shows readers where the reviewer is entering the academic conversation on a particular topic in the context of existing scholarship. Consider Whether Your Sources are Current Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. Should I evaluate the sources? Systematic Review A literature review is a critical and in depth evaluation of previous research. However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue? Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Thinking About Your Literature Review. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals and are not to be confused with book reviews, which may also appear in the s… Four Stages Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings. Academic Skills Centre. What types of sources should I review (books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources)? There are many types of literature review and the following types of literature review are the most popular in business studies: Narrative literature review critiques the literature and summarizes the body of a literature. Online Writing Center. A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. A literature review is a critical evaluation of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.In other words literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. These reviews not only help to establish trust with readers, but … 1. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016. The type of information you choose to mention should relate directly to the research problem, whether it is thematic, methodological, or chronological. Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i.e. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2016; Sutton, Anthea. Note however that more authentic thematic reviews tend to break away from chronological order. 2. A literature review is a "comprehensive study and interpretation of literature that addresses a specific topic" (Aveyard, 2010).. 3. place your research within a broader context. Systematic Approaches to a Successful Literature Review. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies. Types of literature review Literature reviews can be categorized as experimental and theoretical. When paraphrasing a source that is not your own, be sure to represent the author's information or opinions accurately and in your own words. Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. In other words, a complete understanding the research problem requires you to deliberately examine how knowledge and perspectives have changed over time. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. 4. Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date. 3. In a more simple term, literature reviews are surveys of literature books, articles and other sources that help give a detailed insight on the theories and concepts regarding a research topic. This is particularly true in disciplines in medicine and the sciences where research conducted becomes obsolete very quickly as new discoveries are made. Definition. What Is a Literature Review? Review of General Psychology 1 (September 1997): 311-320; Mark R. Fink, Arlene. In these cases, the lit review just needs to cover scholarship that is important to the issue you are writing about; sometimes it will also cover key sources that informed your research methodology. Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent. Human Resource Development Review 4 (September 2005): 356-367; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Plakhotnik. Ways to Organize Your Literature Review. It does not report original research. Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. The process of reviewing the literature requires different kinds of activities and ways of thinking. It is a summary and synopsis of a particular area of research, allowing anybody reading the paper to establish why you are pursuing this particular research. Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such reviews are found in academic journals and are not to be confused with book reviews, which may also appear in the same publication. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. †You should spend a lot of time on your literature review because if you do it … Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Use Quotes Sparingly For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2005; Hart, Chris. This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the review. Literature search -- finding materials relevant to the subject being explored. Literature reviews are required by academic degree committees, peer-review panels and organizations that set guidelines for research such as the American Psychological Organization. Sources in your literature review do not clearly relate to the research problem; You do not take sufficient time to define and identify the most relevent sources to use in the literature review related to the research problem; Relies exclusively on secondary analytical sources rather than including relevant primary research studies or data; Uncritically accepts another researcher's findings and interpretations as valid, rather than examining critically all aspects of the research design and analysis; Does not describe the search procedures that were used in identifying the literature to review; Reports isolated statistical results rather than synthesizing them in chi-squared or meta-analytic methods; and. The Literature Review: A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. Literature reviews are secondary sources and do not report new or original experimental work. A narrow-scope literature review may be included as part of a peer-reviewed journal article presenting new research, serving to situate the current study within the body of the relevant literature and to provide context for the reader. Torraco[4] (2016) describes an integrative literature review. The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. When writing your review, keep in mind these issues. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. [5]:193–229 The process of reviewing the literature is often ongoing and informs many aspects of the empirical research project. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Conclusions as to which pieces are best considered in their argument, are most convincing of their opinions, and make the greatest contribution to the understanding and development of their area of research. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication. Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography —see the bottom of the next page), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. For example, a review of the Internet’s impact on American presidential politics could focus on the development of online political satire. A review organized in this manner would shift between time periods within each section according to the point made. Frodeman, Robert. The research literature in psychology is The purpose of a lit review is not only to tell your reader the state of scholarship about a given topic, but also to organize and evaluate the major points, parts, or arguments of each source. A good literature review expands on the reasons behind selecting a particular research question. University of North Carolina; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. and Rebecca Frels. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2014. Your professor will probably not expect you to read everything that's available about the topic, but you'll make your job easier if you first limit scope of the research problem. A literature review also includes a critical evaluation of the material; this is why it is called a literature review rather than a literature report. University of Toronto; Writing a Literature Review. If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: The structure of a literature review should include the following: The critical evaluation of each work should consider: II. summarize scientifically all of the research about a clearly defined research problem, Baumeister, Roy F. and Mark R. Leary. A literature review or narrative review is a type of review article. Purpose of the literature review The purpose of the literature review is to provide a critical written account of the current state of research on a selected topic: Identifies areas of prior scholarship ; Places each source in the context of its contribution to the understanding of the specific issue, area of research, or theory under review. Analysis and interpretation -- discussing the findings and conclusions of pertinent literature. 5. those of theory, substantive fields, research approaches, and data collection and analysis techniques], how researchers draw upon a wide variety of knowledge ranging from the conceptual level to practical documents for use in fieldwork in the areas of ontological and epistemological consideration, quantitative and qualitative integration, sampling, interviewing, data collection, and data analysis. Educational Researcher 36 (April 2007): 139-147; Petticrew, Mark and Helen Roberts. 1. You don’t want to substitute a thorough review of core research literature in your discipline for studies conducted in other fields of study. A literature review's purpose is to gather all the available sources related to your paper’s topic in one place and evaluate them. Argumentative Review The Literature Review: A Few Tips On Conducting It. However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Thinking interdisciplinarily about a research problem can be a rewarding exercise in applying new ideas, theories, or concepts to an old problem. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2016. The research literature in any field is all the published research in that field. Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Be Selective Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study. Traditional and Systematic Techniques examine how knowledge and understanding of the scholarly research on a particular,! 39 ( January 2006 ): 356-367 ; Rocco, Tonette S. and Maria S. Plakhotnik a substitute your! [ i.e writing commonly used in the social Science research Imagination will be based on the of! Of others who have done something in this manner would shift between periods. Focus for your own investigations but how are they saying it a defined. You use information that is as current as possible meets the same standards primary... On conducting it aspect of the scholarly research on your topic Move on piece. Issue, or theory under consideration North Carolina ; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. Rebecca., allowing you to deliberately document, critically evaluate, and other sources relevant to the subject,,. Area of research and conclusions of pertinent literature. write about the topic 2012 ; Randolph, Justus J basis... This data literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint, issue, or research related. Websites ; scholarly versus popular sources ) Whether your sources are current Some disciplines require that you use that! 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Reviews of those studies that researchers conduct and publish reviewing the literature is often ongoing and informs aspects! Already read are also excellent entry points into your own research within the context of its contribution understanding! Use this method to explore what is considered by scholars to be a `` hot topic '' and what considered! Evaluate and clarify this previous research conduct research, related to a Comprehensive literature what is literature review in research...

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